“Since Exclusion, the government had begun tracking all Chinese-owned businesses throughout the country as a way of keeping tabs on merchants, the one permitted class of Chinese immigrant that could easily be faked. Every Chinese business had to report twice yearly on the status of the company and the number of partners or “merchants” involved. Immigration officials cross-checked dates and names for possible shenanigans, using the files as the basis for interrogations of Chinese residents wishing to travel in or out of the country. In 1894, twelve years after the Exclusion Law went into effect, Fong See once again filed a business application. But he was involved in manufacturing, a category not covered by the new immigration laws” (OGM, page 47).

Click on the photos below to learn about the experience of Chinese-Americans.

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“The Chinese Question” (Photo courtesy of Harpweek)

"Exhibitions on Asian American Experience" (Photo Credit: Hearst Collection, Dept. of Special Collections, USC Library)

“Exhibitions on Asian American Experience” (Photo Credit: Hearst Collection, Dept. of Special Collections, USC Library)

Anti-Chinese Sentiment

Anti-Chinese Sentiment

Paper Sons

Paper Sons

Chinese Railroad Workers (Courtesy of Asian American Studies Library, UC Berkeley)

Chinese Railroad Workers (Courtesy of Asian American Studies Library, UC Berkeley)